Cognitive–metacognitive and content-technical aspects of constructivist Internet-based learning environments: a LISREL analysis

Meichun Lydia Wen, Chin-Chung Tsai, Hung-Ming Lin, Shih-Chyueh Chuang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)


Through a LISREL analysis, this study validated the Constructivist Internet-based Learning Environment Survey (CILES). CILES consisted of six scales, sorted by two aspects. The first aspect, the cognitive–metacognitive aspect, included the scales of student negotiation, inquiry learning, and reflective thinking, whereas the second aspect, the content-technical aspect, involved the scales of Relevance, Ease of Use, and Challenge. A LISREL structural model was also proposed to examine the relationships between students' responses across these two aspects. Survey responses gathered from 483 high school students in Taiwan were the research data for this study. The results from the LISREL confirmatory analysis showed that CILES had highly satisfactory validity and reliability to assess students' preferences for constructivist Internet-based learning environments. Moreover, the structural model indicated that the Internet learning environments that challenged students' existing concepts could facilitate their preferences for student negotiation, inquiry learning and reflective thinking activities. It is proposed that the Internet can have rich connections with numerous resources and a variety of perspectives, thus constructing appropriate learning environments to provide different kinds of challenges for learners.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)237-248
Number of pages12
JournalComputers and Education
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2004

Cite this