Characterization of differential expression and leader intron function of Arabidopsis atTOC159 homologous genes by transgenic plants

Yu Shan Liu, Chih-Wen Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Accurate import of thousands of nuclear-encoded proteins is an important step in plastid biogenesis. However, the import machinery of cytosolic precursor proteins to plastids relies on the Toc and Tic (translocons on the outer envelope and inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts) complexes. Toc159 protein was identified in pea (Pisum sativum) as a major receptor for the precursor proteins. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four psToc159 homologs are identified, termed atToc159, atToc132, atToc120 and atToc90. The expression of these protein-encoding genes has to be properly regulated, because their gene products must be correctly integrated to appropriate apparatus to perform their functions. Results: In order to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of atTOC159 homologous gene expression, transgenes containing various lengths of the upstream regulatory sequences of atTOC159/atTOC132/atTOC120/atTOC90 and GUS coding sequence were transferred to wild type Arabidopsis. In accordance with the analysis of GUS activity in these transgenic plants at various developmental stages, these homologous genes had distinct expression patterns. AtTOC159 and atTOC90 are preferentially expressed in above-ground tissues, such as cotyledons and leaves. In mature roots, atTOC159 and atTOC132 are expressed at higher levels, while atTOC120 and atTOC90 are expressed at the basal level. All four genes have increased expression level during flower and fruit development, particularly a remarkably high expression level of atTOC159 in later stage of fruit development. Furthermore, leader intron in the 5′ UTR induces the expression level of atTOC159 members in a tissue-specific manner. This is able to up-regulate the atTOC120 expression in roots/leaves/flowers, and the atTOC90 expression in cotyledons/leaves/anthers. Conclusions: The differential expression of atTOC159 gene members is essential during plastid development, because proper atToc159 isoforms are required to import distinct proteins to the plastids of different tissues.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBotanical Studies
Volume54
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Sep 25

Fingerprint

plastids
introns
transgenic plants
Arabidopsis
imports
fruiting
cotyledons
genes
proteins
nuclear-encoded proteins
leaves
gene expression
regulatory sequences
5' untranslated regions
anthers
Pisum sativum
transgenes
peas
Arabidopsis thaliana
chloroplasts

Keywords

  • Arabidopsis thaliana
  • Leader intron
  • Promoter activity
  • Reporter gene
  • Transgenic plant
  • atTOC159 homologous genes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science

Cite this

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title = "Characterization of differential expression and leader intron function of Arabidopsis atTOC159 homologous genes by transgenic plants",
abstract = "Background: Accurate import of thousands of nuclear-encoded proteins is an important step in plastid biogenesis. However, the import machinery of cytosolic precursor proteins to plastids relies on the Toc and Tic (translocons on the outer envelope and inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts) complexes. Toc159 protein was identified in pea (Pisum sativum) as a major receptor for the precursor proteins. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four psToc159 homologs are identified, termed atToc159, atToc132, atToc120 and atToc90. The expression of these protein-encoding genes has to be properly regulated, because their gene products must be correctly integrated to appropriate apparatus to perform their functions. Results: In order to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of atTOC159 homologous gene expression, transgenes containing various lengths of the upstream regulatory sequences of atTOC159/atTOC132/atTOC120/atTOC90 and GUS coding sequence were transferred to wild type Arabidopsis. In accordance with the analysis of GUS activity in these transgenic plants at various developmental stages, these homologous genes had distinct expression patterns. AtTOC159 and atTOC90 are preferentially expressed in above-ground tissues, such as cotyledons and leaves. In mature roots, atTOC159 and atTOC132 are expressed at higher levels, while atTOC120 and atTOC90 are expressed at the basal level. All four genes have increased expression level during flower and fruit development, particularly a remarkably high expression level of atTOC159 in later stage of fruit development. Furthermore, leader intron in the 5′ UTR induces the expression level of atTOC159 members in a tissue-specific manner. This is able to up-regulate the atTOC120 expression in roots/leaves/flowers, and the atTOC90 expression in cotyledons/leaves/anthers. Conclusions: The differential expression of atTOC159 gene members is essential during plastid development, because proper atToc159 isoforms are required to import distinct proteins to the plastids of different tissues.",
keywords = "Arabidopsis thaliana, Leader intron, Promoter activity, Reporter gene, Transgenic plant, atTOC159 homologous genes",
author = "Liu, {Yu Shan} and Chih-Wen Sun",
year = "2013",
month = "9",
day = "25",
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language = "English",
volume = "54",
journal = "Botanical Studies",
issn = "1817-406X",
publisher = "Academia Sinica",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Characterization of differential expression and leader intron function of Arabidopsis atTOC159 homologous genes by transgenic plants

AU - Liu, Yu Shan

AU - Sun, Chih-Wen

PY - 2013/9/25

Y1 - 2013/9/25

N2 - Background: Accurate import of thousands of nuclear-encoded proteins is an important step in plastid biogenesis. However, the import machinery of cytosolic precursor proteins to plastids relies on the Toc and Tic (translocons on the outer envelope and inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts) complexes. Toc159 protein was identified in pea (Pisum sativum) as a major receptor for the precursor proteins. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four psToc159 homologs are identified, termed atToc159, atToc132, atToc120 and atToc90. The expression of these protein-encoding genes has to be properly regulated, because their gene products must be correctly integrated to appropriate apparatus to perform their functions. Results: In order to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of atTOC159 homologous gene expression, transgenes containing various lengths of the upstream regulatory sequences of atTOC159/atTOC132/atTOC120/atTOC90 and GUS coding sequence were transferred to wild type Arabidopsis. In accordance with the analysis of GUS activity in these transgenic plants at various developmental stages, these homologous genes had distinct expression patterns. AtTOC159 and atTOC90 are preferentially expressed in above-ground tissues, such as cotyledons and leaves. In mature roots, atTOC159 and atTOC132 are expressed at higher levels, while atTOC120 and atTOC90 are expressed at the basal level. All four genes have increased expression level during flower and fruit development, particularly a remarkably high expression level of atTOC159 in later stage of fruit development. Furthermore, leader intron in the 5′ UTR induces the expression level of atTOC159 members in a tissue-specific manner. This is able to up-regulate the atTOC120 expression in roots/leaves/flowers, and the atTOC90 expression in cotyledons/leaves/anthers. Conclusions: The differential expression of atTOC159 gene members is essential during plastid development, because proper atToc159 isoforms are required to import distinct proteins to the plastids of different tissues.

AB - Background: Accurate import of thousands of nuclear-encoded proteins is an important step in plastid biogenesis. However, the import machinery of cytosolic precursor proteins to plastids relies on the Toc and Tic (translocons on the outer envelope and inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts) complexes. Toc159 protein was identified in pea (Pisum sativum) as a major receptor for the precursor proteins. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four psToc159 homologs are identified, termed atToc159, atToc132, atToc120 and atToc90. The expression of these protein-encoding genes has to be properly regulated, because their gene products must be correctly integrated to appropriate apparatus to perform their functions. Results: In order to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of atTOC159 homologous gene expression, transgenes containing various lengths of the upstream regulatory sequences of atTOC159/atTOC132/atTOC120/atTOC90 and GUS coding sequence were transferred to wild type Arabidopsis. In accordance with the analysis of GUS activity in these transgenic plants at various developmental stages, these homologous genes had distinct expression patterns. AtTOC159 and atTOC90 are preferentially expressed in above-ground tissues, such as cotyledons and leaves. In mature roots, atTOC159 and atTOC132 are expressed at higher levels, while atTOC120 and atTOC90 are expressed at the basal level. All four genes have increased expression level during flower and fruit development, particularly a remarkably high expression level of atTOC159 in later stage of fruit development. Furthermore, leader intron in the 5′ UTR induces the expression level of atTOC159 members in a tissue-specific manner. This is able to up-regulate the atTOC120 expression in roots/leaves/flowers, and the atTOC90 expression in cotyledons/leaves/anthers. Conclusions: The differential expression of atTOC159 gene members is essential during plastid development, because proper atToc159 isoforms are required to import distinct proteins to the plastids of different tissues.

KW - Arabidopsis thaliana

KW - Leader intron

KW - Promoter activity

KW - Reporter gene

KW - Transgenic plant

KW - atTOC159 homologous genes

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