Changes in Group Counseling Engagement and Conflict and Growth in Emotional Cultivation for Children and Adolescents

Li fei Wang*, Dennis M. Kivlighan, Meifen Wei, D. Martin Kivlighan, Yu Ling Hung, Evelyn Yan Yi Koay

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Group climate is an important factor in group counseling and psychotherapy process and outcome research. The current investigation examined group climate changes (from early to late sessions) at the within-group (i.e., group members) and between-group (i.e., group-as-a-whole) levels in predicting changes in group members’ emotional cultivation in group counseling. A total of 236 Taiwanese children and adolescents across 41 groups participated in this study. Members’ ratings of group climate (i.e., engagement and conflict) were partitioned into within-group and between-group components, and polynomial regression with response surface analysis was used to examine the association between changes in group engagement and conflict (at the member and group-level) from early to late group sessions on changes in emotional cultivation. Results supported the theoretical hypothesis that when a group-as-a-whole reported increasing engagement from early to late group sessions, relative to other groups (i.e., between-group effect), members of that group experienced greater growth in emotional cultivation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-171
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Counseling Psychology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Mar


  • children and adolescents
  • emotional cultivation or regulation
  • group climate
  • group counseling and psychotherapy
  • response surface analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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