Changes in employment status and income before and after newly diagnosed depressive disorders in Taiwan: A matched cohort study using controlled interrupted time series analysis

Yu Ling Chen, Wei Hsiang Liao, Shih Heng Wang, Yin Ju Lien, Chia Ming Chang, Shih Cheng Liao, Wei Lieh Huang, Chi Shin Wu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Aims We explored long-term employment status and income before and after depression diagnosis among men and women and at different working ages in Taiwan. Methods Data from 2006 to 2019 were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Individuals with newly diagnosed depressive disorder aged 15 to 64 years during the study period were identified. An equal number of individuals without depression were matched for their demographic and clinical characteristics. Employment outcomes included employment status, which was categorized into employed or unemployed, and annual income. Based on the occupation categories and monthly insurance salary recorded in the Registry for Beneficiaries of the NHIRD, a subject was defined as unemployed if he or she differed from the income earner or the occupation category was unemployed. Monthly income was defined as zero for unemployed subjects and proxied as monthly insurance salary for others. Annual income was the sum of monthly income in each observation year. Results A total of 420,935 individuals with depressive disorder were included in the study, and an equal number of individuals with not diagnosed depression served as controls. Employment rate and income were lower in the depression group than in the control group before the year of diagnosis, with a difference of 5.7% in employment rate and USD 1,173 in annual income. This gap increased considerably after the year of diagnosis (7.3% in employment rate and USD 1,573 in annual incomes) and further widened in the subsequent years (8.1% in employment rate and USD 2,006 in annual incomes in the 5th following year). The drops in the employment rate and income caused by depression were more evident in men and older age groups than in women and younger age groups, respectively. However, the reduction in employment rate and income in the following years after the diagnosis was more considerable among younger age groups. Conclusions The effect of depression on employment status and income was significant during the year of diagnosis and continued afterwards. The effect on employment outcomes varied between genders and across all age groups.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere41
JournalEpidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Volume32
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jun 30

Keywords

  • depression
  • employment
  • income
  • interrupted time series analysis
  • propensity score

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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