Catechin protects against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage of the gastric mucosa by up-regulating Nrf2 in vitro and in vivo

Yu Ting Cheng, Chi Hao Wu, Cheng Ying Ho, Gow Chin Yen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

94 Citations (Scopus)


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including ketoprofen, are widely used in clinical medicine. However, these drugs may damage the gastrointestinal mucosa. Some reports have suggested that intestinal diseases, such as ulcers, are associated with lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage in the mucosa. Phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, are common dietary antioxidants that possess many beneficial characteristics, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of polyphenols on ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal mucosa. We evaluated the effects of catechin, theaflavin, malvidin, cyanidin and apigenin on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in human intestinal-407 (Int-407) cells and rat primary gastric cells treated with ketoprofen. The results indicated that catechin significantly (P<.05) decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation (40.5%) and reactive oxygen species (30.0%), and increased the activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and total sulfhydryl groups. More importantly, the treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with catechin (35 mg/kg/day) prior to the administration of ketoprofen (50 mg/kg/day) successfully inhibited oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of the antioxidant system in the intestinal mucosa. Western blot analysis revealed that catechin stimulated a time-dependent increase in both the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and total heme oxygenase-1 protein expression in Int-407 cells. These results suggest that catechin may have a protective effect on gastrointestinal ulcers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)475-483
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Feb
Externally publishedYes


  • Antioxidant enzymes
  • COX
  • Catechin
  • GPx
  • GRd
  • GSH
  • GSSG
  • Gastric ulcer
  • HO-1
  • Int-407 cells
  • Ketoprofen
  • LDH
  • MDA
  • NQO1
  • NSAIDs
  • Nrf2
  • PG
  • ROS
  • SD rats
  • TBA
  • TSH

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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