Bond graph modelling of fuel cell and engine hybrid electric scooters

Y. H. Hung, C. W. Hong*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents the modelling technique and dynamic simulation results of fuel cell and engine Hybrid Electric Scooters (HES) using the bond graph approach. The first example is on a fuel cell-battery hybrid scooter, in which the zero pollution fuel cell is the major powerplant, also acts as the battery charger. The second case study is on a typical engine-motor-regenerator-battery HES. It mainly consists of a brush-less direct current motor/regenerator and a 4-stroke direct injection spark ignition engine. They are interconnected in parallel by a continuously variable transmission. Detailed differential equation sets as well as simulation results are presented. A fuzzy auto-pilot control rule was employed to simulate the vehicle performance under typical driving pattern conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)522-541
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Vehicle Design
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Bond graph approach
  • Fuel cell
  • HES
  • Hybrid electric scooter
  • Modelling and simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Bond graph modelling of fuel cell and engine hybrid electric scooters'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this