Bond graph dynamics of a rubber-belt continuously variable transmission

Y. H. Hung, C. W. Hong*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This paper analyses the system dynamics of a rubber-belt continuously variable transmission (CVT), which is widely adopted in the modem scooter powertrain systems. Dynamic mathematical models were derived from the physical configuration of the CVT directly via a bond graph approach. The CVT mainly consists of a varying-diameter driving pulley and another flange-moveable driven pulley, interconnected by a V-shaped rubber belt. Effective belt diameters of both driving and driven pulleys are controlled by a speed governor and a torque regulator, respectively. Each component was functionally analysed, employing the field theory in the bond graph technique. Mathematical equations were derived and then solved on a Matlab platform. Both static and dynamic performance simulations were examined for future electronic control implementation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)383-398
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Vehicle Design
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Bond graph approach
  • Continuously variable transmission (CVT)
  • System dynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering


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