Attentional bias of students toward negative feedback in bad outcome situations: the mechanism of self-defense

Po Sheng Huang, Cheng Hong Liu, Hsueh Chih Chen, Scott Sommers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The main goals of the present study were to investigate the effects of outcome valence on attentional bias toward feedback and examine the internal mechanism of self-defense. We systematically manipulated the outcome valence by providing a bogus score in a rational thinking task and recorded the time positive feedback and negative feedback was viewed in experiment 1. We added the intervention of self-affirmation to examine the self-defense mechanism in experiment 2. The results suggest that (1) in good outcome situations, the participants viewed negative feedback longer than positive feedback. There was a tendency to slightly reduce the attention given to negative feedback in bad outcome situations. (2) Self-affirming participants in bad outcome situations increased their viewing time of negative feedback, which supported the activation of defensiveness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)565-583
Number of pages19
JournalSocial Psychology of Education
Volume21
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jul 1

Keywords

  • Attentional bias
  • Feedback
  • Outcome valence
  • Self-affirmation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

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