Attentional bias of students toward negative feedback in bad outcome situations: the mechanism of self-defense

Po Sheng Huang, Cheng Hong Liu, Hsueh Chih Chen, Scott Sommers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The main goals of the present study were to investigate the effects of outcome valence on attentional bias toward feedback and examine the internal mechanism of self-defense. We systematically manipulated the outcome valence by providing a bogus score in a rational thinking task and recorded the time positive feedback and negative feedback was viewed in experiment 1. We added the intervention of self-affirmation to examine the self-defense mechanism in experiment 2. The results suggest that (1) in good outcome situations, the participants viewed negative feedback longer than positive feedback. There was a tendency to slightly reduce the attention given to negative feedback in bad outcome situations. (2) Self-affirming participants in bad outcome situations increased their viewing time of negative feedback, which supported the activation of defensiveness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)565-583
Number of pages19
JournalSocial Psychology of Education
Volume21
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jul 1

Keywords

  • Attentional bias
  • Feedback
  • Outcome valence
  • Self-affirmation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

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