Assessing Teacher's Attitude, Knowledge, and Application (AKA) on STEM: An Effort to Foster the Sustainable Development of STEM Education

Bevo Wahono, Chun Yen Chang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


This study focuses on assessing the growth of the latest developments of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) as part of an effort to maintain the progress of STEM education. Assessment is necessary for every educational activity, including in the field of STEM education. However, there are limited comprehensive reports on the progress and development of STEM education inside individual Asian countries. An attempt to bring up the sustainable development of STEM education is conducted by using an exhaustive assessment. The assessment, within this study, includes three domains, namely attitudes, knowledge, and applications (AKA) regarding STEM education. The comparison of these three domains based on demographic data, teachers' difficulties perception, and its contribution to the sustainable development of STEM education is, likewise, discussed. This type of research is a mix of both qualitative and quantitative research methodology. The quantitative analysis method was performed to address the level position and the comparative value of the three domains. In comparison, the qualitative analysis method was employed to strengthen the quantitative result analysis, as well as to deal with the teachers' perception. Results show that science teachers have a very good attitude, a moderate-level category in the application, and a low-level category in knowledge regarding STEM education. Further, there are differences in knowledge and the application of STEM education, based on educational background and teaching experience of the teachers, yet there are no differences regarding teachers' attitudes. Other components are discussed in detail, such as the teacher's perception of STEM teaching difficulties. Providing challenges and opportunities for improving the quality of education in the future are discoursed. The results of this study suggest that knowledge and attitudes are fundamental domains for the proper implementation, as well as sustainability, of STEM education (especially in Indonesia).

Original languageEnglish
Article number950
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Feb 13


  • Assessment
  • Education for sustainable development
  • STEM education
  • Science teachers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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