Anemia and iron deficiency in pregnant Ghanaian women from urban areas

Cyril Engmann*, Richard Adanu, Tsui Shan Lu, Carl Bose, Betsy Lozoff

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To determine the prevalence and identify risk factors for iron deficiency and anemia in pregnant Ghanaian women from urban areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 452 healthy pregnant women receiving prenatal care in Accra, Ghana, was conducted. A sociodemographic health questionnaire was performed and hematologic parameters were measured. Logistic regression methods were used to identify risk factors for anemia and iron status. Results: Complete data were available for 428 women. Anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL) was present in 144 (34%), iron deficiency (ferritin ≤ 16 μg/L) in 69 (16%), and iron deficiency anemia in 32 (7.5%) women. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for anemia was 3.4 and 9.8 if iron deficiency and malaria parasitemia were present, respectively; the OR was 0.6 if women were at ≥ 36 weeks of pregnancy. The adjusted OR for iron deficiency was 2.7 if women were at ≥ 36 weeks of pregnancy and 0.12 if they had sickle trait. Conclusion: Although anemia and iron deficiency remain substantial problems in pregnant Ghanaian women from urban areas, their prevalence is less than previously reported.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)62-66
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Apr
Externally publishedYes


  • Anemia
  • Ghana
  • Iron deficiency
  • Pregnancy
  • Urban areas

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology


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