An Integrated Optimal Energy Management/Gear-Shifting Strategy for an Electric Continuously Variable Transmission Hybrid Powertrain Using Bacterial Foraging Algorithm

Syuan Yi Chen, Yi Hsuan Hung, Chien Hsun Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)


This study developed an integrated energy management/gear-shifting strategy by using a bacterial foraging algorithm (BFA) in an engine/motor hybrid powertrain with electric continuously variable transmission. A control-oriented vehicle model was constructed on the Matlab/Simulink platform for further integration with developed control strategies. A baseline control strategy with four modes was developed for comparison with the proposed BFA. The BFA was used with five bacterial populations to search for the optimal gear ratio and power-split ratio for minimizing the cost: the equivalent fuel consumption. Three main procedures were followed: chemotaxis, reproduction, and elimination-dispersal. After the vehicle model was integrated with the vehicle control unit with the BFA, two driving patterns, the New European Driving Cycle and the Federal Test Procedure, were used to evaluate the energy consumption improvement and equivalent fuel consumption compared with the baseline. The results show that [ 18.35 %, 21.77 % ] and [ 8.76 %, 13.81 % ] were improved for the optimal energy management and integrated optimization at the first and second driving cycles, respectively. Real-time platform designs and vehicle integration for a dynamometer test will be investigated in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1495732
JournalMathematical Problems in Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jan 1


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mathematics(all)
  • Engineering(all)

Cite this