ALMA Survey of Orion Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (ALMASOP): The Warm-envelope Origin of Hot Corinos

Shih Ying Hsu*, Sheng Yuan Liu, Doug Johnstone, Tie Liu, Leonardo Bronfman, Huei Ru Vivien Chen, Somnath Dutta, David J. Eden, Neal J. Evans, Naomi Hirano, Mika Juvela, Yi Jehng Kuan, Woojin Kwon, Chin Fei Lee, Chang Won Lee, Jeong Eun Lee, Shanghuo Li, Chun Fan Liu, Xunchuan Liu, Qiuyi LuoSheng Li Qin, Mark G. Rawlings, Dipen Sahu, Patricio Sanhueza, Hsien Shang, Ken'ichi Tatematsu, Yao Lun Yang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Hot corinos are of great interest due to their richness in interstellar complex organic molecules (COMs) and the consequent potential prebiotic connection to solar-like planetary systems. Recent surveys have reported an increasing number of detected hot corinos in Class 0/I protostars; however, the relationships between their physical properties and the hot-corino signatures remain elusive. In this study, our objective is to establish a general picture of the detectability of hot corinos by identifying the origins of the hot-corino signatures in the sample of young stellar objects (YSOs) obtained from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Survey of Orion Planck Galactic Cold Clumps project. We apply spectral energy distribution modeling to our sample and identify the physical parameters of the modeled YSOs directly, linking the detection of hot-corino signatures to the envelope properties of the YSOs. Imaging simulations of the methanol emission further support this scenario. We therefore posit that the observed COM emission originates from the warm inner envelopes of the sample YSOs, based on both the warm region size and the envelope density profile. The former is governed by the source luminosity and is additionally affected by the disk and cavity properties, while the latter is related to the evolutionary stages. This scenario provides a framework for detecting hot-corino signatures toward luminous Class 0 YSOs, with fewer detections being observed toward similarly luminous Class I sources.

Original languageEnglish
Article number120
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Oct 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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