ALMA Survey of Orion Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (ALMASOP). II. Survey Overview: A First Look at 1.3 mm Continuum Maps and Molecular Outflows

Somnath Dutta*, Chin Fei Lee, Tie Liu, Naomi Hirano, Sheng Yuan Liu, Ken'ichi Tatematsu, Kee Tae Kim, Hsien Shang, Dipen Sahu, Gwanjeong Kim, Anthony Moraghan, Kai Syun Jhan, Shih Ying Hsu, Neal J. Evans, Doug Johnstone, Derek Ward-Thompson, Yi Jehng Kuan, Chang Won Lee, Jeong Eun Lee, Alessio TraficanteMika Juvela, Charlotte Vastel, Qizhou Zhang, Patricio Sanhueza, Archana Soam, Woojin Kwon, Leonardo Bronfman, David Eden, Paul F. Goldsmith, Jinhua He, Yuefang Wu, Veli Matti Pelkonen, Sheng Li Qin, Shanghuo Li, Di Li

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCCs) are considered to be the ideal targets to probe the early phases of star formation. We have conducted a survey of 72 young dense cores inside PGCCs in the Orion complex with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 1.3 mm (band 6) using three different configurations (resolutions ∼0.″35, 1.″0, and 7.″0) to statistically investigate their evolutionary stages and substructures. We have obtained images of the 1.3 mm continuum and molecular line emission (12CO, and SiO) at an angular resolution of ∼0.″35 (∼140 au) with the combined arrays. We find 70 substructures within 48 detected dense cores with median dust mass ∼0.093 M o˙ and deconvolved size ∼0.″27. Dense substructures are clearly detected within the central 1000 au of four candidate prestellar cores. The sizes and masses of the substructures in continuum emission are found to be significantly reduced with protostellar evolution from Class 0 to Class I. We also study the evolutionary change in the outflow characteristics through the course of protostellar mass accretion. A total of 37 sources exhibit CO outflows, and 20 (>50%) show high-velocity jets in SiO. The CO velocity extents (ΔVs) span from 4 to 110 km s-1 with outflow cavity opening angle width at 400 au ranging from [Θobs]400 ∼ 0.″6-3.″9, which corresponds to 33. 4-125. 7. For the majority of the outflow sources, the ΔVs show a positive correlation with [Θobs]400, suggesting that as protostars undergo gravitational collapse, the cavity opening of a protostellar outflow widens and the protostars possibly generate more energetic outflows.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Dec

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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  • ALMA survey of Orion PGCCs (ALMASOP). II. 1.3mm

    Dutta, S. (Creator), Lee, C. (Creator), Liu, T. (Creator), Hirano, N. (Creator), Liu, S. (Creator), Tatematsu, K. (Creator), Kim, K. (Creator), Shang, H. (Creator), Sahu, D. (Creator), Kim, G. (Creator), Moraghan, A. (Creator), Jhan, K. (Creator), Hsu, S. (Creator), Evans, N. J. (Creator), Johnstone, D. (Creator), Ward-Thompson, D. (Creator), Kuan, Y. (Creator), Lee, C. W. (Creator), Lee, J. (Creator), Traficante, A. (Creator), Juvela, M. (Creator), Vastel, C. (Creator), Zhang, Q. (Creator), Sanhueza, P. (Creator), Soam, A. (Creator), Kwon, W. (Creator), Bronfman, L. (Creator), Eden, D. (Creator), Goldsmith, P. F. (Creator), He, J. (Creator), Wu, Y. (Creator), Pelkonen, V. (Creator), Qin, S. (Creator), Li, S. (Creator), Li, D. (Creator), Lee, C. (Creator), Hirano, N. (Creator), Liu, S. (Creator), Shang, H. (Creator), Hsu, S. (Creator), Johnstone, D. (Creator), Kuan, Y. (Creator), Lee, C. W. (Creator), Kwon, W. (Creator), Goldsmith, P. F. (Creator) & Li, S. (Creator), Centre de Donnees Strasbourg (CDS), 2021


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