A paper-based electrode using a graphene dot/PEDOT:PSS composite for flexible solar cells

Chuan Pei Lee, Kun Yu Lai, Chin An Lin, Chun Ting Li, Kuo Chuan Ho, Chih I. Wu, Shu Ping Lau, Jr Hau He*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

136 Citations (Scopus)


We have synthesized a metal-free composite ink that contains graphene dots (GDs) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) that can be used on paper to serve as the counter electrode in a flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). This paper-based GD/PEDOT:PSS electrode is low-cost, light-weight, flexible, environmentally friendly, and easy to cut and process for device fabrication. We determined the GD/PEDOT:PSS composite effectively fills the dense micro-pores in the paper substrate, which leads to improved carrier transport in the electrode and a 3-fold enhanced cell efficiency as compared to the paper electrode made with sputtered Pt. Moreover, the DSSC with the paper electrode featuring the GD/PEDOT:PSS composite did not fail in photovoltaic tests even after bending the electrode 150 times, whereas the device made with the Pt-based paper electrode decreased in efficiency by 45% after such manipulation. These exceptional properties make the metal-free GD/PEDOT:PSS composite ink a promising electrode material for a wide variety of flexible electronic applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)260-267
Number of pages8
JournalNano Energy
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jun 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Conducting polymer
  • Dye-sensitized solar cell
  • Flexible electrode
  • Graphene dots
  • Metal-free counter electrode
  • Paper electrode

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Materials Science
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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