A Noninvasive Method to Determine the Fate of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles following Intravenous Injection Using Scanning SQUID Biosusceptometry

Wei Kung Tseng, Jen Jie Chieh, Yi Fan Yang, Chih Kang Chiang, Yuh Lien Chen, Shieh Yueh Yang, Herng Er Horng, Hong Chang Yang, Chau Chung Wu

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19 Citations (Scopus)


Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of Fe3O4 have been widely applied in many medical fields, but few studies have clearly shown the outcome of particles following intravenous injection. We performed a magnetic examination using scanning SQUID biosusceptometry (SSB). Based on the results of SSB analysis and those of established in vitro nonmagnetic bioassays, this study proposes a model of MNP metabolism consisting of an acute metabolic phase with an 8 h duration that is followed by a chronic metabolic phase that continues for 28 d following MNP injection. The major features included the delivery of the MNPs to the heart and other organs, the biodegradation of the MNPs in organs rich with macrophages, the excretion of iron metabolites in the urine, and the recovery of the iron load from the liver and the spleen. Increases in serum iron levels following MNP injection were accompanied by increases in the level of transferrin in the serum and the number of circulating red blood cells. Correlations between the in vivo and in vitro test results indicate the feasibility of using SSB examination for the measurement of MNP concentrations, implying future clinical applications of SSB for monitoring the hematological effects of MNP injection.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere48510
JournalPloS one
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Nov 12

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General


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