A microwave-assisted fluorescence labeling method for use in CE-LIF (capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence) is described. Six amphetamine-like designer drugs, namely, o-, m-, p-chloro- and o-, m-, p-fluoro-amphetamine derivatives, were synthesized and used as model compounds. FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer I) and a blue-laser were used as the fluorescent labeling reagent and excitation source, respectively. When a microwave oven was used, the reaction was complete within ∼5. min, while the classical method required at least 20. h (usually, an overnight reaction). A mimic oral fluid sample was obtained by spiking oral fluid from a volunteer with the six standards, and after liquid-liquid extraction and microwave-derivatization, it was possible to process the analytes by CE-LIF within a period of ∼10. min; the wavelength of the blue-laser used was 473. nm. For comparison, data obtained using classical methods, including CZE-UV (capillary zone electrophoresis-UV absorbance detection), sweeping-MEKC-UV (micellar electrokinetic chromatography-UV absorbance detection) and LC-Q-TOFMS (liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry) are also reported.
- Designer drugs
- Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF)
- Oral fluid
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine