A microwave-assisted fluorescent labeling method for the separation and detection of amphetamine-like designer drugs by capillary electrophoresis

Kuan Fu Chen, Hsun Lee, Ju Tsung Liu, Huan An Lee, Cheng-Huang Lin

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8 Citations (Scopus)


A microwave-assisted fluorescence labeling method for use in CE-LIF (capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence) is described. Six amphetamine-like designer drugs, namely, o-, m-, p-chloro- and o-, m-, p-fluoro-amphetamine derivatives, were synthesized and used as model compounds. FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer I) and a blue-laser were used as the fluorescent labeling reagent and excitation source, respectively. When a microwave oven was used, the reaction was complete within ∼5. min, while the classical method required at least 20. h (usually, an overnight reaction). A mimic oral fluid sample was obtained by spiking oral fluid from a volunteer with the six standards, and after liquid-liquid extraction and microwave-derivatization, it was possible to process the analytes by CE-LIF within a period of ∼10. min; the wavelength of the blue-laser used was 473. nm. For comparison, data obtained using classical methods, including CZE-UV (capillary zone electrophoresis-UV absorbance detection), sweeping-MEKC-UV (micellar electrokinetic chromatography-UV absorbance detection) and LC-Q-TOFMS (liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry) are also reported.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-99
Number of pages5
JournalForensic Science International
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 2013 May 10



  • Amphetamine
  • Designer drugs
  • FITC
  • Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF)
  • Microwave
  • Oral fluid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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