A literature review of questionnaires for the assessment of online learning with a specific focus on the factors and items employed

Ying Zhou, Xin An, Xiuting Li, Lewei Li, Xue Gong, Yushun Li*, Ching Sing Chai, Jyh Chong Liang, Chin Chung Tsai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Studies measuring online learning have adopted different perspectives, resulting in different approaches to their assessment of online learning. However, when we consider the literature from a wider angle, there may be complimentary or contrasting relationships. This study performed content analysis on a total of 44 studies that used questionnaires with good reliability and validity from the database of the Social Science Citation Index. Through encoding the 241 factors and 1,171 items used in the questionnaires, we found relationships among them that could be supported by classical theoretical frameworks or our general knowledge of instruction. The content measured by these questionnaires can be divided into five categories according to Li’s (2001) theory of instructional elements: (1) learning environment, (2) learner, (3) teacher, (4) learning content, and (5) learning interaction. Following the initial analysis, this study used the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) (Oye et al., 2014) to classify 58 factors that reflect the learning environment. In addition, the combination of Marzano and Kendall’s (2007) new taxonomy of educational objectives and learning outcomes provides useful information for 111 factors used to assess learners.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)182-204
Number of pages23
JournalAustralasian Journal of Educational Technology
Volume38
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Content analysis
  • Learning environment
  • Learning interaction
  • Literature review
  • Online learning
  • Questionnaires

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

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