Transiently populated oligomers formed en route to amyloid fibrils may constitute the most toxic aggregates associated with many amyloid-associated diseases. Most nucleation theories used to describe amyloid aggregation predict low oligomer concentrations and do not take into account free energy costs that may be associated with structural rearrangements between the oligomer and fiber states. We have used isotope labeling and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to spectrally resolve an oligomeric intermediate during the aggregation of the human islet amyloid protein (hIAPP or amylin), the protein associated with type II diabetes. A structural rearrangement includes the F23G24A25I26L27 region of hIAPP, which starts from a random coil structure, evolves into ordered β-sheet oligomers containing at least 5 strands, and then partially disorders in the fibril structure. The supercritical concentration is measured to be between 150 and 250 μM, which is the thermodynamic parameter that sets the free energy of the oligomers. A 3-state kinetic model fits the experimental data, but only if it includes a concentration independent free energy barrier >3 kcal/mol that represents the free energy cost of refolding the oligomeric intermediate into the structure of the amyloid fibril; i.e., "oligomer activation" is required. The barrier creates a transition state in the free energy landscape that slows fibril formation and creates a stable population of oligomers during the lag phase, even at concentrations below the supercritical concentration. Largely missing in current kinetic models is a link between structure and kinetics. Our experiments and modeling provide evidence that protein structural rearrangements during aggregation impact the populations and kinetics of toxic oligomeric species.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry