Enhancing science inquiry ability of students has been recognized to be one of the most important education issues nowadays. Although various simulation programs have been developed for training science knowledge and ability, several problems have been revealed in practical learning activities. One major problem is owing to the lack of experiences in practical applications for what have learned from the textbooks. To deal with this problem, this study presents a context-aware ubiquitous learning system that employs Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to detect and examine real-world learning behaviors of students and provide personalized learning guidance accordingly. Experimental results from a science course of an elementary school show that this innovative approach is able to improve the learning achievements of students as well as enhance their learning motivation.