A biomechanical comparison of different baseball batting training methods

Wei Han Chen, Yu Cheng Chiu, Chiang Liu, Ming Sheng Chan, Nicholas J. Fiolo, Tzyy Yuang Shiang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This study compared the kinematic parameters of swing mechanics under toss batting (TB), motor imagery (MI), video projection (VP), and virtual reality (VR) conditions during baseball batting. Nine college baseball players performed three swings to hit a tossed ball under TB conditions or a virtual ball under MI, VP, and VR conditions. The results revealed that upper trunk backward rotation was smaller in the loading phase under the VP and VR conditions than under the TB and MI conditions and lower under VR than under the VP condition (p < 0.05) except at the load event. Pelvic backward rotation was smaller under the VR condition than under the TB, MI, and VP conditions (p < 0.05). In the swing phase, TB demonstrated higher peak velocity at the head of the bat, lead elbow extension, and pelvis and upper trunk rotation than did MI, VP, and VR, whereas VP also demonstrated higher peak velocity in pelvic forward rotation than did VR (p < 0.05). In summary, VR demonstrates a more realistic response in the loading phase and reduced pelvic backward rotation but lower movement velocities. Coaches should pay attention to movement differences between swing conditions when arranging a swing training plan.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)599-608
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Science and Coaching
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jun


  • Dry swing
  • hitting
  • kinematics
  • motion analysis
  • perceptual-motor skill
  • posture
  • simulation
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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