The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on heart rate variability (HRV), repeated sprint performance and maximum aerobic capacity in male college students. Thirty-one habitual smokers (S) and ninety-nine non-smokers (NS) completed this randomized experimental design. Prior to experiment, all participants were familiarized to the exercise protocol with a repeated high-intensity sprint test (RST) and a 20-m shuttle test (ST). RST test consists of 6 × 10-s sprints with 60-s active recovery between each sprint, and ST is a 20-m shuttle run according to the tempo of the music as indicating maximum aerobic capacity. The HRV parameters were recorded in supine position for 20-min prior and 30-min following the RST test. The peak power, mean power, total work, heart rate and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were taken during the RST on a cycle ergometer. Results showed no significant differences on peak power, mean power, total work, heart rate and RPE between S and NS groups. However, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly lower and blood pressure was significantly higher in S group than in NS group. Furthermore, the root mean square successive difference (RMSSD), proportion of differences of adjacent R-R interval ＞ 50 ms (pNN50), high frequency (HF), and natural logarithm of the high frequency (lnHF) were significantly higher in S group compared to NS group. We concluded that cigarette smoking may impair maximum aerobic capacity and increase blood pressure at the post-exercise, but the anaerobic capacity is not altered. Moreover, cigarette smoking increases vagal drive after RST that may be due to increased parasympathetic modulation during post-exercise recovery.