How to Talk to Myself: Optimal Implementation for Developing Fluency in EFL Speaking Through Soliloquizing

Shang En Huang, Yeu Ting Liu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


“Soliloquizing” refers to the self-talk practice of a language learner through verbalizing thoughts using their target language. Through years of research, scholars have maintained that soliloquizing has the potential to promote language learners’ oral fluency in unscripted speech; nevertheless, empirical validation of soliloquizing has yet to be confirmed. The aims of the current study were two-fold: (1) to empirically establish the pedagogical efficacy of soliloquizing for promoting fluency in unscripted speech and to explore the most desirable implementation setting for this practice; and 2) to delve into second-language (L2) learners’ perceived attitudes towards and experience of soliloquizing. A total of 28 EFL college students with CEFR B1 English proficiency participated in a 4-week soliloquizing treatment under four conditions, i.e., [+ / − time pressure] × [+ / − restriction of fillers]. This L2 learners’ fluency, gleaned from the measure of pruned speech rate, was analyzed using paired sample t-tests and two-way ANOVA, while their attitudes were further investigated using questionnaires and interviews. This study showed that soliloquizing significantly enhanced EFL learners’ speaking fluency and attitude, and that an optimal soliloquizing setting was the one implemented with increasing time constraint. Based on the obtained quantitative and qualitative findings, desirable soliloquizing implementation settings are discussed.

Translated title of the contribution如何 (練習) 與自己對話: 利用 Soliloquizing 提升外語學習者口語流利度之最佳操作環境
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-169
Number of pages25
JournalEnglish Teaching and Learning
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jun


  • EFL learners
  • Oral fluency
  • Soliloquizing
  • Unscripted speech

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Linguistics and Language


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