Purpose: This study investigated the effects of bandwidth knowledge of results (BWKR) and its age differences on motor performance and learning of spatial task. Ninety participants from third, sixth, and ninth grades were randomly assigned into BWO%, BW5%, and BW10% in each age stratification. Methods: All participants performed a linear position task consisting of 40 trials during acquisition phase, and a 5-minute immediate retention test consisting of 12 trials without KR information. The dependent variables were the scores of absolute error (AE) and variable error (VE) of movement distance. Mixed designed three-way ANOVA (grades × BWKRs × blocks) with repeated measures on blocks during the acquisition phase was used. Independent two-way ANOVA (grades×BWKR5) was used for immediate retention. Results: (1) during acquisition phase, BWKRs and blocks were significantly different (p＜.05), in which BW5% was better than BW0% on AE and BW5%, BW10% were all better than BW0% on VE; (2) in immediate retention test, only BWKR on AE (p＜.05) was significantly different, in which BW10% was better than BW0%. Moreover BWKR and the interaction of grades × BWKRs were significantly different on VE (p＜.05), in which BW5% was better than BW0% in 3rd grade, BW5% and BW10% were better than BW0% in 6th grade, BW10% was better than BW0% in 9th grade, and 9th grade was better than 6th grade in BW0%. It was concluded that, for the simple linear movement for the young students. Conclusion: (1) BWKR was not only a performance variable but also a learning variable, and (2) the optimal level of BWKR on motor learning changed with age.
|Number of pages||18|
|Publication status||Published - 2008|