兒童踢球動作型式之轉移:工作限制與年齡效應

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This study was designed to examine kicking patterns' transition of children as a function of environmental constraints and age-differences. Based on the affordance concept and dynamical systems perspective, it was hypothesized that kicking patterns could be influenced by task constraints and transitions would take place at a specific critical ball size. Participants consisted of 3 groups (5-yr-old, 8-yr-old, and 11-yr-old) each group had of 16 children. Each participant was asked to kick a stationary ball, which was scaled up in individual height with using 4 levels of constraints (height×l0%, 15%, 20%, 25%). Systematic observation using component approach was utilized for analyzing filmed kicking trials. Mixed-design two-way ANOVA, 3(age)×4(ball size) and Tukey's HSD Post Hoc test were administered for statistical analyses. Findings were(1)ages and ball sizes to leg component pattern had the main effect (p<.05, ES=.68, .11, Power=1, .94), the component pattern of 11-yr-old was significantly higher than that of 5-yr-old, 8-yr-old; in those component patterns of no.1 and no. 2 were significantly lower than those of no.3 and no.4; there was no interaction between ages and task constraints (p>.05, ES=.02, Power=.25), and (2) transitions appeared at the critical ball size to the different age groups: 5-yr-old group at no. 3 level; both 8-yr-old and 11-yr-old groups at no. 2 level had unstable kicking patterns. The findings showed that the ball size was a factor in changing kicking pattern, kicking pattern was influenced by ball size, which in a specific critical ball size would initiate unstable patterns, and there were age-differences in the kicking patterns.
Original languageChinese
Pages (from-to)93-110
Number of pages18
Journal臺灣運動心理學報
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2003

Cite this

兒童踢球動作型式之轉移:工作限制與年齡效應. / 彭國威; 卓俊伶(Hank J. Jwo); 楊梓楣(Chih-Mei Yang).

In: 臺灣運動心理學報, No. 2, 2003, p. 93-110.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "兒童踢球動作型式之轉移:工作限制與年齡效應",
abstract = "This study was designed to examine kicking patterns' transition of children as a function of environmental constraints and age-differences. Based on the affordance concept and dynamical systems perspective, it was hypothesized that kicking patterns could be influenced by task constraints and transitions would take place at a specific critical ball size. Participants consisted of 3 groups (5-yr-old, 8-yr-old, and 11-yr-old) each group had of 16 children. Each participant was asked to kick a stationary ball, which was scaled up in individual height with using 4 levels of constraints (height×l0{\%}, 15{\%}, 20{\%}, 25{\%}). Systematic observation using component approach was utilized for analyzing filmed kicking trials. Mixed-design two-way ANOVA, 3(age)×4(ball size) and Tukey's HSD Post Hoc test were administered for statistical analyses. Findings were(1)ages and ball sizes to leg component pattern had the main effect (p<.05, ES=.68, .11, Power=1, .94), the component pattern of 11-yr-old was significantly higher than that of 5-yr-old, 8-yr-old; in those component patterns of no.1 and no. 2 were significantly lower than those of no.3 and no.4; there was no interaction between ages and task constraints (p>.05, ES=.02, Power=.25), and (2) transitions appeared at the critical ball size to the different age groups: 5-yr-old group at no. 3 level; both 8-yr-old and 11-yr-old groups at no. 2 level had unstable kicking patterns. The findings showed that the ball size was a factor in changing kicking pattern, kicking pattern was influenced by ball size, which in a specific critical ball size would initiate unstable patterns, and there were age-differences in the kicking patterns.",
keywords = "踢, 環境賦使, 動態系統, 轉移, 工作限制, kicking, affordance, dynamical systems, transition, task constraint",
author = "國威 彭 and 卓, {俊伶(Hank J. Jwo)} and 楊, {梓楣(Chih-Mei Yang)}",
year = "2003",
language = "Chinese",
pages = "93--110",
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T1 - 兒童踢球動作型式之轉移:工作限制與年齡效應

AU - 彭, 國威

AU - 卓, 俊伶(Hank J. Jwo)

AU - 楊, 梓楣(Chih-Mei Yang)

PY - 2003

Y1 - 2003

N2 - This study was designed to examine kicking patterns' transition of children as a function of environmental constraints and age-differences. Based on the affordance concept and dynamical systems perspective, it was hypothesized that kicking patterns could be influenced by task constraints and transitions would take place at a specific critical ball size. Participants consisted of 3 groups (5-yr-old, 8-yr-old, and 11-yr-old) each group had of 16 children. Each participant was asked to kick a stationary ball, which was scaled up in individual height with using 4 levels of constraints (height×l0%, 15%, 20%, 25%). Systematic observation using component approach was utilized for analyzing filmed kicking trials. Mixed-design two-way ANOVA, 3(age)×4(ball size) and Tukey's HSD Post Hoc test were administered for statistical analyses. Findings were(1)ages and ball sizes to leg component pattern had the main effect (p<.05, ES=.68, .11, Power=1, .94), the component pattern of 11-yr-old was significantly higher than that of 5-yr-old, 8-yr-old; in those component patterns of no.1 and no. 2 were significantly lower than those of no.3 and no.4; there was no interaction between ages and task constraints (p>.05, ES=.02, Power=.25), and (2) transitions appeared at the critical ball size to the different age groups: 5-yr-old group at no. 3 level; both 8-yr-old and 11-yr-old groups at no. 2 level had unstable kicking patterns. The findings showed that the ball size was a factor in changing kicking pattern, kicking pattern was influenced by ball size, which in a specific critical ball size would initiate unstable patterns, and there were age-differences in the kicking patterns.

AB - This study was designed to examine kicking patterns' transition of children as a function of environmental constraints and age-differences. Based on the affordance concept and dynamical systems perspective, it was hypothesized that kicking patterns could be influenced by task constraints and transitions would take place at a specific critical ball size. Participants consisted of 3 groups (5-yr-old, 8-yr-old, and 11-yr-old) each group had of 16 children. Each participant was asked to kick a stationary ball, which was scaled up in individual height with using 4 levels of constraints (height×l0%, 15%, 20%, 25%). Systematic observation using component approach was utilized for analyzing filmed kicking trials. Mixed-design two-way ANOVA, 3(age)×4(ball size) and Tukey's HSD Post Hoc test were administered for statistical analyses. Findings were(1)ages and ball sizes to leg component pattern had the main effect (p<.05, ES=.68, .11, Power=1, .94), the component pattern of 11-yr-old was significantly higher than that of 5-yr-old, 8-yr-old; in those component patterns of no.1 and no. 2 were significantly lower than those of no.3 and no.4; there was no interaction between ages and task constraints (p>.05, ES=.02, Power=.25), and (2) transitions appeared at the critical ball size to the different age groups: 5-yr-old group at no. 3 level; both 8-yr-old and 11-yr-old groups at no. 2 level had unstable kicking patterns. The findings showed that the ball size was a factor in changing kicking pattern, kicking pattern was influenced by ball size, which in a specific critical ball size would initiate unstable patterns, and there were age-differences in the kicking patterns.

KW - 踢

KW - 環境賦使

KW - 動態系統

KW - 轉移

KW - 工作限制

KW - kicking

KW - affordance

KW - dynamical systems

KW - transition

KW - task constraint

M3 - 文章

SP - 93

EP - 110

JO - 臺灣運動心理學報

JF - 臺灣運動心理學報

SN - 1814-5108

IS - 2

ER -