This study investigated the relationships among maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), body composition, 2×30-s Wingate test variables and 2,000-m time-trial on a Concept Ⅱ rowing ergometer, and then established the best variables to predict the rowing performance. Twelve college male rowers (age, 20.2±1.0 yrs; height, 178.2±3.7 cm; weight, 75.9±7.7 kg; VO2 max, 59.4±3.5 ml．kg^(-1)•Min^(-1)) volunteered to participate in this study. Blood lactate and oxygen uptake were measured during a discontinuous graded exercise test on a rowing ergometer incremented by 35 W for each 3 min stage. The 2×30-s Wingate test, rest interval of 4 min active recovery was performed on a Monark bicycle ergometer to determine the mean power, peak power and fatigue percentage. Body composition was measured by the bio-impedance analysis to analyze the body weight and muscle mass. It was found that the average time of the 2,000-m time-trial rowing was 417.0±6.7 sec. The multiple-regression analysis indicated that 98.3% of the variation in 2,000-m indoor rowing performance time was predicted by the average powers of 0-500 m and 1,000-1,500 m. Submitting absolute VO2 max, power at the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), height, weight, muscle mass, mean and peak powers of the 2×30-s Wingate test to a forward multiple regression analysis produced the following model to predict 2,000-m rowing performance: Time 2,000 (time of 2,000 m rowing, sec)=656.98-0.257•(power at OBLA)-0.797•(height)-1.444•(muscle mass)+1.231•(body weight) +0.029•(peak power of the 1st 30-s Wingate test)-0.090•(mean power of the 1st 30-s Wingate test), (r^2=0.911, standard error=49.74, p＜.05). These results indicated that the anaerobic power was an important parameter to predict the 2,000-m indoor rowing performance. Thus, rowers should devote time to the improvement of anaerobic power.