Part 1: (1) the use of VR in ED instruction moderately and positively affected ED competence among students in identifying constraints. (2) VR positively affected the cognitive and affective domains in the ED process, but the VR effects on the psychomotor domain were nonsignificant. (3) the use of VR-based instruction positively affected the students’ ED results with a medium effect regarding functionality and uniqueness. Part 2: (1).Application of VR to teaching has a moderately positive influence on the Empathize, Define, and Ideate stages of the design process as well as on the total scores for engineering design thinking. This effect is more pronounced in girls than in boys. (2).The application of VR to teaching has a moderately positive influence on the engineering design thought processes of students, with a greater effect observed in girls than in boys. Part 3: (1) VR has significant positive effects on creative design processes, particularly in the design and planning, testing and revision and thoughts and appreciation stages. (2) VR has significant positive effects on creative design outcomes, with high- and low-level effects on creative design and functional appropriateness, respectively. (3) The learning process for VR and creative experiential learning shifts from concrete experiences to reflective observations, abstract conceptualization and, finally, innovative applications. Behaviors of reflective observation and innovative application are active and vital to the performance of creative processes and outcomes.
|Effective start/end date||2017/08/01 → 2020/10/31|
- Virtual reality
- Engineering design creativity
- creativity process
- Experiential learning
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