In order to maintain the operation of the Eight Banners system, the rulers of the Ch’ing Dynasty devised many new measures after 1644, while the soldier’s indemnity was one among them. The government gave payments to the soldiers according to their positions. There ways for indemnity varied, including death on the battlefield or retirement owing to handicap, aging and serious disease, while there were even indemnity rules for the widows and orphans of the deceased, and thus formed a complete retirement system. These measures were not first invented in the Ch’ing Dynasty, while the pension did not target at the eight banners only. However, the emperor and the government officers regarded it as part of the aegis and the solution of the issues regarding the eight banners’ livelihood. The indemnity measures for the eight banners solders was way too meticulous, but the problems concerning practical operation and disputes derived from the application deserve further discussion. Therefore, this project aims to analyze such important issues as the regulations of the indemnity and its adjustments, the procedure managements and the scandals, as well as cash reward and its dispute, in terms of government policy, official management and the soldiers’ application for collection.
|Effective start/end date||2019/08/01 → 2020/12/31|
- Eight Banner system
- regulations and precedents
- issue of the Eight Banners’ livelihood
- investment funds scheme
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