The study adopted nano-graphene and were added to engine oil, gear oil, coolant respectively to create a graphene nano-lubricant oil (GrNLO), graphene nano-gear oil (GrNGO) and graphene nano-coolant (GrNC). The graphene nano-fluids (GrNFs) were synthesized with excellent thermal conductivity, dispersibility, and toughness. As well as, the results of GrNC were used heat transfer system to further investigate their fundamental properties. The GrNFs fluids including GrNLO, 0.03 wt.%(from 5 samples), GrNGO 0.03 wt.% (from 5 samples) and 0.07 wt.% GrNC (from 6 samples) were chosen as the best selection and were conducted in the four-stroke engine motorcycle experiment. GrNFs (GrNLO, GrNGO, GrNC) were compared with the original fluids under 4 modes (engine oil, gear oil, coolant). The vehicle with GrNFs (GrNLO, GrNGO, GrNC) had an increase of 5.9 % in energy efficiency at ECE-40 driving mode. At the fixed speed of 50 km/h, energy efficiency decreased by 2.6 % and average fuel consumption (km/L) decreased 3.26 %. What’s more, at the flat road mode with the half of acceleration openness, the vehicle ran 2.5 % faster and 6.6 % more energy-efficient. At the climbing mode with the half of acceleration openness, the vehicle ran 8.5 % faster and 7.9 % more energy-efficient. The PM emissions from vehicles with GrNFs (GrNLO, GrNGO, GrNC) and with original fluids were also tested and measured. At ECE-40 driving mode, the vehicle with GrNFs (GrNLO, GrNGO, GrNC) had 32% decrease in particles smaller than 0.3 μm, and 81% decrease in particles larger than 1 μm; 32% and 80% decrease at the fixed speed of 50 km/h; 14 % and 24 % decrease at the flat road mode; 12.4% and 12.6% decrease at the climbing mode.
|Effective start/end date||2020/08/01 → 2021/07/31|
- energy efficiency
- particulate matter (PM)
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