In Mandarin, the multiple-modal construction, such as y?ngg?i-k?y? ‘should be able to’ and k?neng-yao ‘may be necessary’, is quite common. In contrast, there are no individual modal verbs in Japanese and Korean. Modality is expressed via verbal suffixes or other constructions in Japanese while it is expressed through constructions such as ‘there is a way to do…’ in Korean. Therefore, according to the markedness theory in second language acquisition, native Japanese speakers and Korean speakers may encounter difficulties when learning the multiple-modal construction in Mandarin. Although it is not difficult to find studies on L2 acquisition of modals in Mandarin, none is known to explore the L2 acquisition of the multiple-modal construction. Hence, the major purpose of this study is to investigate native Japanese speakers’ and native Korean speakers’ acquisition of the multiple-modal construction in Mandarin. It is believed that the hierarchical order of modal verbs is universal. Japanese and Korean are SOV languages. In what way L1 Japanese speakers’ and L1 Korean speakers’ learning the multiple-modal construction in Mandarin will reflect this universality and in what way it is influenced by their native languages are the second issue that this study will investigate. Japanese and Korean are both SOV languages; however, their modal systems are quite different. Whether L1 Japanese speakers and L1 Korean speakers will exhibit cross-linguistic differences in learning the multiple-modal construction in Mandarin is the third problem to be explored in this study. In addition, we will compare L1 Japanese speakers’ and L1 Korean speakers’ performances in learning the multiple-modal construction in Mandarin with that of L1 English speakers to see if typological differences play a role in this respect. To obtain the L2 data needed in this study, a questionnaire will be employed. Native Japanese and Korean speakers who are learning Mandarin in Taiwan will be asked to participate in the study and fill in the questionnaire. The two groups of participants will be further divided into two sub-groups, respectively, based on their proficiency levels of Mandarin. At the same time, a control group consisting of native speakers of Mandarin will be formed. In this way, we can find out the similarities and differences between the L2 learners’ and L1 speakers’ knowledge of the multiple-modal construction in Mandarin. In addition, the similarities and differences among the Japanese speakers’ performance and that of the Korean speakers and the similarities and differences among the two proficiency levels of each group can also be revealed. It is hoped that the findings of this study will shed some new light on teaching and learning Mandarin as a second or foreign language.
|Effective start/end date||2017/08/01 → 2018/12/31|
- multiple-modal construction，L2 acquisition
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