This research explores the production and circulation of Hakka hymns and gospel songs across Asian Sinophone Societies. I echo reflections on what is “Hakka culture” in contemporary Hakka Studies, follow the observations of “cultural encounters” in the globalized world in Ethnomusicology, Anthropology, and Ethnic Studies, and adopt the framework of “Sinophone Studies” in my analysis of Hakka hymns and gospel songs as an “assemblage”. Based on archival data, textual analyses, and ethnographic research, the presented research argues Hakka hymns and gospel songs can be considered as a phenomenon of religious musicking, which was shaped by cultural encounters that happened in transnational flows. In addition, it argues Hakka hymns and gospel songs are not merely means for exemplifying the theology of contextualization and supporting ethnic mission; they are also media that expressing and continuously constructing a transnational identity among Hakka Christians; the texts and performances of Hakka hymns and gospel songs help negotiate the tensions between ethnic traditions and religious doctrines, contextualizing the values of Hakka culture and the rationale of Christian practices. Furthermore, the present research suggests Hakka hymns and gospel songs as an assemblage comprise diverse ethnic, aesthetics, and religious identities. Lastly, in a form of polyphony, the texts and performances of Hakka hymns and gospel songs have been appropriated and represented according to the needs of distinct contexts rather than being merely reproduced invariably, through which their cultural meanings continue thriving and expanding.
|Effective start/end date||2019/08/01 → 2022/07/31|
- Hakka hymns and gospel songs
- ethnic imagination
- transnational flows
- Sinophone Studies
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