The topic of this project is the grammaticalization from accomplishment verbs (AVs) to adverbs. We focus on 4 facets. Firstly, the origins of the adverb jin (), jing () and gu?ng (). Secondly, the comparison among the adverb jin, jing () and gu?ng. Thirdly, the origins and grammatticalizational pathways among bi (), jing () and bijing (). Fourthly, the comparison between the adverb yi? () and ji (). The main findings include: 1. The adverb jin evolved from the verb jin ‘exhaust, empty’, and the pathway was incepted on the structural transition of “jin V”, from “predicate-object” to “adverbial-head”. The adverb jing () developed from the very verb meaning ‘wash clean’, via a complement usage. The adverb gu?ng is related to its verbal sense ‘manifest, bare, be empty.’ 2. The commonality between jin and jing () lies on the denotation of whole-covering, limitation, and constancy, yet gu?ng has only the denotation of limitation. The mechanism behind the development of jin and jing () from whole-covering to constancy is metaphor, mapping from space domain to temporal domain. Jin developed the sense of limitation from whole-covering, while jing () developed reversely. This phenomenon can be explained via the cognitive-psychological perspective: minimum and maximum interchange frequently. There lies the language universal (LU) behind this bi-directional conversion; e.g., jing () developed the sense of limitation from whole-covering, too. 3. The development of jin was not as frequent as jie? () or do?u (), and this was caused by its pragmatically-negative propensity. Besides, the prevalence of the “predicate-complement” construction “V-jin” also made “jin-V” be replaced gradually. The reason why jin and jing () have negative propensity concerns their original verbal meaning. This reflects “Principle of Persistence”. 4. Bi, jing () or bijing all evolved from verbs. As for jing (), there are two pathways, viz. the scope adverb (SA) one and the temporal adverb (TA) one, and for bi and bijing, there is only one for each, viz. SA, and TA, respectively. 5. Bi, jing () and bijing has developed as adverb of universal quantification, and the jing () and bijing has developed from the notion ‘indeed’ to ‘on earth’. There lies the LU behind these phenomena, exhibiting a general rule in grammaticalization. 6. The clauses containing the TA yi? and ji served as the subordinate clause (SC) in compound sentences in the beginning, then served as the main clause, and stand as independent sentences in the end. The progress could be observed through the “yi?/ji……ji ()” construction, and could be explained by inter-subjectification, which has come into play at the stage whence it served as SC.
|Effective start/end date||2018/08/01 → 2020/12/31|
- accomplishment verb
- scope adverb
- temporal adverb
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