A. This study explores the synergy of metaphors’ change momentum and urges the exploration of the development of organization theory. In this study, questionnaires were used to analyze the opinions of 409 school staff from 28 schools of junior high school, using 17 metaphors as the contents of the questionnaire, supplemented by explanations of the qualitative meanings. Subsequently, according to the positive and negative meanings of the metaphor momentum, totally 41 principals, administrators, teachers and parents were interviewed. The results demonstrate that with the machine metaphor as the main axis, supplemented by the brain metaphor and the organ metaphor. Also, the confluence effect of politics across communities and professions and the employment of innovation can drive the progress for bureaucracy. B. This study aims to understand the mediating effect of the use of metaphors of chaos on organizational development through organizational learning ability and the impact of organizational literacy on the use of metaphors of chaos to understand the role of metaphors in prompting school reform. In this study, we employed a questionnaire survey in Taiwan’s middle schools, which were sampled using the stratified random method, and statistically analyzed 1,276 questionnaires from 97 middle schools using structural equation modeling. Findings: (1) The use of metaphors of chaos in the school has a mediating effect on organizational development through organizational learning ability and (2) the literacy of school bureaucratic reform has a moderating effect on metaphors of chaos. C. The Study is to explore the metaphorical use through teaching of university graduate program for cultivating the literacy of organizational change in education. The study tries to understand the exercise approaches of metaphors through university teaching for Ph.D. graduate students’ literacy of organizational change in education in which they participate in class for inquiring the curriculum of postmodern management of organizations. When their opinions are estimated, they have participated in the study during two years. Then, the research facilitates them to criticize multiple perspectives of organizational metaphors with interrogation of metaphors, write the papers of work flow with the reflection of metaphors and explore the possibility of metaphorical exercise with social interaction. Then, the researchers understand the functional mechanism of metaphors through the analyses of observing notes. Eventually, the researchers collect the data by interview with 17 students of the doctorate program in department of education in which they involve in-service training in order to explore useful metaphors with effective teaching approaches, which can promote the literacy of organizational change in education in order to create the new teaching implications in higher education.
|Effective start/end date||2017/08/01 → 2019/07/31|
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