This study aims to assess middle school students' and parents' perceptions of digital marketing, literacy, and risk behaviors, to develop and evaluate digital marketing literacy education program, and to evaluate the effects. Thirty-four digital advertisers, students, and parents were interviewed. A total of 2611 7th grade students and 2331 parents from 30 schools in five counties and cities completed self-administered questionnaires. In addition, 541 students and parents participated in digital marketing education program. The findings were as follows. 1. The interview results indicated that digital advertisers reported features of digital marketing were individualized, while digital marketing could target audience precisely. Advertisers chose TA according to social media personal profile, while online gaming marketing strategies included influencer marketing and in-app purchasing marketing. Advertisers disagreed sponsorship disclosure. 2. Parents reported that children played online games and asked to purchase online products. Parental mediation mainly limited children's online time. Parents suggested communicating with children and setting rules. 3. Student reported saw online gaming ads frequently. Students had in-app purchase. Students reported dislike pup-up advertisements, while they did not care whether sponsorship was disclosed. 4. The survey results indicated that 90% of students owned smartphones, while students spent 18 hours using smartphones. They spent 10 hours and 4 hours a week playing online games and watching influencers respectively. 5. Students reported often saw gaming and fast food ads on Internet. About 90% students reported playing online games, while 30% had in-app purchase and used dating apps. 6. About half of students ever been stolen password, while 20% ever contact strangers online. Ten percent of students ever been cyberbullied, while 5% had problematic gaming. 7. Most students did not know that companies used 'cookies' to collect information, while students did not know that companies may have paid for their deal to appear first on the search or price comparison websites. 8. More than half of parents did not know that the minimum age of using Facebook, while parents did not know that companies used 'cookies' to collect information. Rural parents had lower digital marketing literacy than urban parnets. Parents’ digital marketing literacy was positively associated with children’s digital marketing literacy. 9. About 30% of parents reported that children asked them to buy online products. More than 60% of parents worried that companies collected children's personal data. Parents who had higher levels of worry, digital marketing literacy, eHealth literacy were more likely to implement active and restrictive parental mediation. 10. Longitudinal study results indicated that students who had higher levels of game advertising exposure, advertising effect, and outcome expectancy were more likely to initiate playing online games, gambling games and in-app purchasing, while students who had higher digital marketing literacy were less likely to purchase online. Students who had in-app purchase were more likely to play gambling games. Students who played online games, gambling games, and used dating apps were more likely to be cyberbullied. 11. The digital marketing literacy intervention had positive effects on increasing students’ coping efficacy and parents’ risk perceptions. School-based digital marketing literacy educational intervention had better effects than online courses.
|Effective start/end date||2019/08/01 → 2021/07/31|
- middle school student
- digital marketing
- risk behavior
- educational intervention
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